THERAPEUTIC OPTIONS, EVOLUTION, AND FOLLOW-UP IN LIVER HYDATIDOSIS: A LITERATURE REVIEW
Hydatidosis is a disease affecting most commonly liver and lungs, and it is caused by the infection that, in humans, is due to the larval stage of the Echinococcus granulosus. These complexes generate cystic hydatid disease characterized by unilocular cystic lesions. The disease spreads mostly in geographical areas with a large amount of livestock, and it is closely associated with dogs. The mechanic action produced on the tissues by the progressive growth of the cyst, even if with certain limitations, relates to the entity of the symptomatology. The diagnosis can be based on abdominal ultrasonography, which represents the golden standard and serology, or using more refined techniques such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging or Computed Tomography. The optimal treatment for hepatic cystic echinococcosis has not been fully determined, but it can follow a conservative method (benzimidazoles therapy, percutaneous evacuation, or a watch and wait policy) and a surgical way (by open or laparoscopic cyst approach). The prognosis is favorable in cases of unique cysts, in a location where it is easily removed by surgical intervention or if it positively responds to pharmacological treatment or to Percutaneous Aspiration Injection and Reaspiration (PAIR) technique.